Multiplication of whole numbers

**Multiplication of whole numbers**

The product of two whole numbers, m and n is:

m x n=m+m+...+m (n times)

This is just a shorthand for saying, "Add

*m to itself n* times."

7 x 5 = 7+7+7+7+7=35, but you only write 7 x 5 = 35

**Properties of multiplication**

1.

**Associative:** For any three whole numbers a, b and c:

ax(bxc) = (axb)xc

*Example 1: Example 2:*

(5 x 7) x 2 = 35 x 2 = 70 (4 x 9) x 3 = 36 x 3 = 108

5 x ( 7 x 2) = 5 x 14 = 70 4 x ( 9 x 3) = 4 x 27 = 108

2.

**Commutative:** For any two whole numbers a and b:

a x b = b x a

12 x 7 = 7 x 12 = 84

24 x 19 = 19 x 24 = 216